• 呆板人完成了人类“最困难的义务”:组装宜家家具
  • 日期:2018-04-25   点击:次   字体:[ ]

Robots have taken our jobs, learned our chores and beaten us at our own games. 呆板人抢走了我们的任务,学会了做家务,还在竞赛中打败了我们。 Now researchers in Singapore say they have trained one to perform another task known to confound humans: figuring out how to assemble furniture from Ikea. 如今,新加坡的研讨职员们表现,他们曾经乐成地训练出呆板人实行另一个备感诧异的人类所熟知的义务:想方法组装宜家家具。 A team from Nanyang Technological University programmed a robot to create and execute a plan to piece together most of Ikea’s $25 solid-pine Stefan chair on its own, calling on a medley of human skills to do so. The researchers explained their work in a study published on Wednesday in the journal Science Robotics. 南洋理工大学(Nanyang Technological University)的一个团队给一个呆板人编了顺序,让其发明并实行方案,自主组装宜家售价25美元的松木斯第芬(Stefan)椅的大局部,要做到这一点需求种种人类的技艺。研讨职员周三宣布在《迷信呆板人》(Science Robotics)杂志上的研讨陈诉对他们的研讨停止了阐明。 “If you think about it, it requires perception, it requires you to plan a motion, it requires control between the robot and the environment, it requires transporting an object with two arms simultaneously,” said Dr. Quang-Cuong Pham, an assistant professor of engineering at the university and one of the paper’s authors. “Because this task requires so many interesting skills for robots, we felt that it could be a good project to push our capabilities to the limit.” “想一想,这需求洞察力,需求你对举动做出计划,需求在呆板人和情况间的控制,需求同时用两个机器臂运送一件物品,”范光強(Quang-Cuong Pham,音)博士说,他是该校的工程学助理传授,也是该论文的作者之一。“由于这项义务对呆板人来说需求少量故意思的技艺,我们以为这会是一个将我们的才能拓展到极致的好项目。” He and his Nanyang colleagues who worked on the study, Francisco Suárez-Ruiz and Xian Zhou, aren’t alone. 他和南洋理工大学一道停止这项研讨的同事弗朗西斯科·苏亚雷斯-鲁伊斯(Francisco Suárez-Ruiz)及周宪(音)并非独行者。 In recent years, a handful of others have set out to teach robots to assemble Ikea furniture, a task that can mimic the manipulations robots can or may someday perform on factory floors and that involves a brand many know all too well. 比年来,其他一些人也开端教呆板人组装宜家家具,这个义务可以模仿呆板人有朝一日可以或许能够在工场里停止的操纵,并且它触及一个很多人熟知的品牌。 “It’s something that almost everybody is familiar with and almost everybody hates doing,” said Ross A. Knepper, an assistant professor of computer science at Cornell University, whose research focuses on human-robot interaction. “这是简直每团体都熟习,也是每团体都厌恶做的事变,”康奈尔大学(Cornell University)盘算机迷信助理传授罗斯·A·克内珀(Ross A. Knepper)说,他的研讨次要聚焦在人机交互方面。 In 2013, Mr. Knepper was part of a team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that presented a paper on its work in the area, describing the “IkeaBot” the team created, which could assemble the company’s Lack table on its own. 2013年的时分,克内珀曾是麻省理工大学(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)一个研讨团队的成员,该团队宣布了一篇相干范畴的论文,对他们发明的“宜家呆板人”(IkeaBot)停止了描绘,这个呆板人可以自主组装宜家的拉科(Lack)桌。 But chairs, with backs, stretchers and other parts, pose a more complex challenge; hence the interest of the Nanyang researchers. 但组装带有靠背、横档及其他部件的椅子难度更大,因而这激起了南洋理工大学研讨职员的兴味。 Their robot was made of custom software, a three-dimensional camera, two robotic arms, grippers and force detectors. The team chose only off-the-shelf tools, in order to mirror human biology. 他们的呆板人由特殊设计的软件、一个平面照相机、两只机器臂、抓握器及力感到器构成。为了模拟人类生物学,该团队选择的都是已有的现成东西。 “Humans have the same hardware to do many different things,” Dr. Pham said. “So this is kind of the genericity that we wanted to mimic.” “人类有异样的硬件来做很多差别的事变,”范光強说。“以是这便是我们想模拟的泛型。” Also like humans, the robot had a little help to start: It was fed a kind of manual, a set of ordered instructions on how the pieces fit together. After that, though, it was on its own. 异样地,像人类一样,这款呆板人在开端组装家具时也没失掉什么协助:提供应它的是某种指南,一系列关于怎样将各个部位组装起来的指令。在那之后,它就只能靠本人了。 The robot proceeded in three broad phases, spread out over 20 minutes 19 seconds. 呆板人分三个大阶段开端停止,共耗时20分钟19秒。 First, like humans, it took some time to stare at the pieces scattered before it. 起首,像人类一样,它花了些工夫盯着散落在本人眼前的各个部位。 The robot spent a few seconds photographing the scene and matching each part to the one modeled in its “manual.” 呆板人花了几秒,对面前目今的现象停止照相,把每个部位与“指南”里的停止婚配。 Then, over more than 11 minutes, the robot devised a plan that would allow it to quickly assemble the chair without its arms knocking into each other or into the various parts. 然后,在11分钟多的工夫里,呆板人设计了一个方案,可以让它在机器臂不互相碰撞或撞到差别零件的状况下,疾速将椅子组装起来。

Finally, it put the plan in motion over the course of nearly nine minutes. The robot used grippers to pick up the wooden pins from a tray and force sensors at its “wrists” to detect when the pins, searching in a spiral pattern, finally slid into their holes. Working in unison, the arms then pressed the sides of the chair frame together. 终极,它在近9分钟工夫里实行了这个方案。呆板人应用抓握器从一个托盘里拿起木钉,位于其“腰部”的力感到器会以螺旋方法停止搜刮,检测木钉何时该当被置入孔中。两条机器臂协同合作,然后将椅子的框架向内按压,合在一同。 Of course, the robot didn’t succeed right away. There were several failed attempts along the way and researchers tweaked the system before the robot was finally able to assemble the chair on its own. 固然,呆板人也不是立即就获得了乐成。时期也有不少失败,在呆板人终极可以自主组装椅子前,研讨职员对零碎停止了不少窜改。 The accomplishment was the culmination of three years of work, but the team is eager to see what else it can automate, Dr. Pham said. 这一成绩是三年高兴的后果,但范光強说,该团队还盼望看到这个呆板人能主动操纵其他什么工具。 With the help of experts in artificial intelligence, the researchers may be able to create a robot that can build a chair by following spoken directions or by watching someone else do it first, he said. Or maybe, he said, they’ll eventually develop one that assembles furniture in a way that is truly human: by ignoring the manual altogether. 他说,在人工智能专家的协助下,研讨职员们能够会发明出一款呆板人,它会遵从语音指令,或先寓目他人组装,再本人来入手。又或许,他说,他们终极能开辟出一款能真正以人类的方法组装家具的呆板人:完全无视组装指南。

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